Medicine; analytical reviews of general medicine, neurology, psychiatry, dermatology, and pediatries
RATIONALE: Nocardia species are not commonly referred as primary infectious entities but rather as opportunistic pathogens. Infectious cases of Nocardia spp. in immunocompetent individuals are rare.PATIENT CONCERNS: An immunocompetent 58-year-old patient presented with recurrent headaches.DIAGNOSIS: A brain abscess was found and surgically drained. Matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization-time-of-flight mass spectrometry and heat shock protein 65/16S-23S rRNA gene intergenic spacer genotyping from the sample revealed the etiological agent as Nocardia beijingensis.INTERVENTIONS: Meropenem/amikacin/Trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole were administered.OUTCOMES: The infection persisted leading to the patient's death.LESSONS: Here we present the first case of N. beijingensis infection of the central nervous system in an immunocompetent patient from Latin America. Further inquiry is needed to establish whether this species is more virulent than other Nocardia isolates.