Structural, morphological, and optoelectrical characterization of Bi 2 S 3 thin films grown by co-evaporation
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Modern Physics Letters B
This work presents the results of synthesis and characterization of polycrystalline n-type Bi 2 S 3 thin films. The films were grown through a chemical reaction from co-evaporation of their precursor elements in a soda-lime glass substrate. The effect of the experimental conditions on the optical, morphological structural properties, the growth rate, and the electrical conductivity (σ) was studied through spectral transmittance, X-ray diffraction (XRD), atomic force microscopy (AFM) and σ versus T measurements, respectively. The results showed that the films grow only in the orthorhombic Bi 2 S 3 bismuthinite phase. It was also found that the Bi 2 S 3 films present an energy band gap (Eg) of about 1.38 eV. In addition to these results, the electrical conductivity of the Bi 2 S 3 films was affected by both the transport of free carriers in extended states of the conduction band and for variable range hopping transport mechanisms, each one predominating in a different temperature range.