Psychological effects were determined in 284 children and adolescents exposed to armed conflict in a rural area of Colombia, selected through random sampling proportional allocation. The instruments applied were: The Child Behavior Checklist, the Youth Behavior Self-report, the Trauma Symptoms Checklist for Children, the Coping Scale for Adolescents and the Resilience Scale for School Children. Findings showed that 72% of the population suffers from psychological problems, 64.4 from internalizing behavior and 47% from externalizing behavior within clinical range. It was also found that 32% had somatic problems, 56% were at risk for PTSD and 93% had moderate alcohol consumption. The most frequently used coping strategy was to leave things get fixed by themselves. There was a high need for health care. Being male constituted a risk factor for depression, aggression and social problems in children. In turn, being up to12 years old and a student of a lower grade were risk factors for somatic symptoms in adolescents. Results clearly revealed the impact on mental health of the population under study.