Cloud databases achieve high availability by automatically replicating data on multiple nodes. However, the overhead caused by the replication process can lead to an increase in the mean and variance of transaction response times, causing unforeseen impacts on the offered quality-of-service (QoS). In this paper, we propose a measurement-driven methodology to predict the impact of replication on Database-As-A-Service (DBaaS) environments. Our methodology uses operational data to parameterize a closed queueing network model of the database cluster together with a Markov model that abstracts the dynamic replication process. Experiments on Amazon RDS show that our methodology predicts response time mean and percentiles with errors of just 1% and 15% respectively, and under operational conditions that are significantly different from the ones used for model parameterization. We show that our modeling approach surpasses standard modeling methods and illustrate the applicability of our methodology for automated DBaaS provisioning.