Prevalence and risk factors for intestinal parasitic infections in pregnant women residing in three districts of Bogotá, Colombia. Academic Article

journal

  • BMC Public Health

abstract

  • ANTECEDENTES:Las infecciones parasitarias intestinales (IPI) conducen a una morbilidad y mortalidad significativas en poblaciones pediátricas y adultas en todo el mundo. El parasitismo intestinal durante el embarazo es de interés ya que puede afectar la salud de las mujeres embarazadas y de sus hijos. Este estudio determinó la prevalencia del IPI en mujeres embarazadas que viven en condiciones deficientes en tres distritos urbanos de Bogotá, Colombia. También se evaluaron las asociaciones entre la prevalencia y los factores sociodemográficos, la vivienda y las condiciones de vida.MÉTODOS:En un estudio transversal y basado en la comunidad, se reclutaron mujeres embarazadas de tres distritos de Bogotá. Un total de 550 participantes contestaron un cuestionario; 331 de ellos también proporcionaron muestras de heces, de los cuales 233 proporcionaron una y 98 dos. Las respuestas al cuestionario se asociaron con la presencia de parásitos intestinales, que se determinó utilizando una técnica de microscopía combinada estándar que incluía la concentración directa de montaje húmedo y formol-éter. Los resultados se verificaron mediante el examen complementario de 48 muestras de heces mediante la reacción en cadena de la polimerasa cuantitativa (qPCR).RESULTADOS:Entre las mujeres embarazadas que vivían en áreas residenciales pobres seleccionadas en Bogotá, la prevalencia general de parasitismo intestinal fue del 41% con un 9% de poliparasitismo. Los parásitos patógenos estaban presentes en el 1,2% de los 331 participantes, incluyendo Giardia lamblia y Ascaris lumbricoides. Se encontró una mayor prevalencia de parásitos con patogenicidad debatida, incluyendo Blastocystis hominis (25%), Endolimax nana (15%), Entamoeba coli (8%), e Iodamoeba butschlii (2%). También se detectó el complejo Entamoeba histolytica/disparo (1,5%). Al comparar un subconjunto de muestras de heces utilizando la técnica de microscopía combinada y la qPCR, esta última detectó una mayor prevalencia general de IPI del 58,3%. Se encontró una mayor prevalencia de infecciones por cualquier parásito intestinal en participantes que nunca habían sido desparasitados (p = 0,01). Se encontraron asociaciones más altas, pero no estadísticamente significativas, entre cualquier parásito y las mujeres que viven con una pareja, y el poliparasitismo intestinal y que pertenecen a un grupo minoritario y no tienen un sumidero de agua.CONCLUSIONES:Este primer estudio sobre la prevalencia del parasitismo intestinal en Bogotá se centró en mujeres embarazadas que viven en la pobreza, encontró una alta prevalencia de parásitos intestinales de patogenicidad debatida y confirmó una baja prevalencia de parásitos intestinales patógenos. Estos resultados ponen de relieve la necesidad de intervenciones educativas para interrumpir las rutas de transmisión de los parásitos prevalentes.
  • BACKGROUND:Intestinal parasitic infections (IPI) lead to significant morbidity and mortality in pediatric and adult populations worldwide. Intestinal parasitism during pregnancy is of interest as it may affect the health of pregnant women and their offspring. This study determined the prevalence of IPI in pregnant women living in substandard conditions in three urban districts of Bogotá, Colombia. Associations between prevalence and sociodemographic factors, housing, and living conditions were also evaluated.METHODS:In a cross-sectional and community-based study, pregnant women were recruited from three districts of Bogotá. A total of 550 participants answered a questionnaire; 331 of these also provided stool samples, with 233 providing one and 98 providing two stool samples. Questionnaire responses were associated with the presence of intestinal parasites, which was determined using a standard combined microscopy technique including direct wet mount and formol-ether concentration. Results were verified by supplementary examination of 48 stool samples by quantitative polymerase chain reaction (qPCR).RESULTS:Among pregnant women who lived in selected poor residential areas in Bogotá, the overall prevalence of intestinal parasitism was 41% with 9% polyparasitism. Pathogenic parasites were present in 1.2% of the 331 participants including Giardia lamblia and Ascaris lumbricoides. Higher prevalence was found for parasites with debated pathogenicity, including Blastocystis hominis (25%), Endolimax nana (15%), Entamoeba coli (8%), and Iodamoeba butschlii (2%). Entamoeba histolytica/dispar complex was also detected (1.5%). When comparing a subset of stool samples using the combined microscopy technique and qPCR, the latter detected a higher 58.3% overall IPI prevalence. Higher prevalence of infections by any intestinal parasite was found in participants who had never been dewormed (p = 0.01). Higher but not statistically significant associations were found between any parasite and women living with a partner, and intestinal polyparasitism and being from a minority group and not having a water sink.CONCLUSIONS:This first study of the prevalence of intestinal parasitism in Bogotá focused on pregnant women living in poverty, found a high prevalence of intestinal parasites of debated pathogenicity, and confirmed a low prevalence of pathogenic intestinal parasites. These results highlight the need for educational interventions to disrupt transmission routes for prevalent parasites.
  • BACKGROUND:Intestinal parasitic infections (IPI) lead to significant morbidity and mortality in pediatric and adult populations worldwide. Intestinal parasitism during pregnancy is of interest as it may affect the health of pregnant women and their offspring. This study determined the prevalence of IPI in pregnant women living in substandard conditions in three urban districts of Bogotá, Colombia. Associations between prevalence and sociodemographic factors, housing, and living conditions were also evaluated.METHODS:In a cross-sectional and community-based study, pregnant women were recruited from three districts of Bogotá. A total of 550 participants answered a questionnaire; 331 of these also provided stool samples, with 233 providing one and 98 providing two stool samples. Questionnaire responses were associated with the presence of intestinal parasites, which was determined using a standard combined microscopy technique including direct wet mount and formol-ether concentration. Results were verified by supplementary examination of 48 stool samples by quantitative polymerase chain reaction (qPCR).RESULTS:Among pregnant women who lived in selected poor residential areas in Bogotá, the overall prevalence of intestinal parasitism was 41% with 9% polyparasitism. Pathogenic parasites were present in 1.2% of the 331 participants including Giardia lamblia and Ascaris lumbricoides. Higher prevalence was found for parasites with debated pathogenicity, including Blastocystis hominis (25%), Endolimax nana (15%), Entamoeba coli (8%), and Iodamoeba butschlii (2%). Entamoeba histolytica/dispar complex was also detected (1.5%). When comparing a subset of stool samples using the combined microscopy technique and qPCR, the latter detected a higher 58.3% overall IPI prevalence. Higher prevalence of infections by any intestinal parasite was found in participants who had never been dewormed (p = 0.01). Higher but not statistically significant associations were found between any parasite and women living with a partner, and intestinal polyparasitism and being from a minority group and not having a water sink.CONCLUSIONS:This first study of the prevalence of intestinal parasitism in Bogotá focused on pregnant women living in poverty, found a high prevalence of intestinal parasites of debated pathogenicity, and confirmed a low prevalence of pathogenic intestinal parasites. These results highlight the need for educational interventions to disrupt transmission routes for prevalent parasites.

publication date

  • 2018/8/29

edition

  • 18

International Standard Serial Number (ISSN)

  • 1471-2458