Mild and severe preclampsia: study of cases and controls at Chiquinquira Hospital 2012 - 2014
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Pre-eclampsia is one of the main causes of maternal and fetal morbidity and mortality in Colombia and a major public health problem in the area of influence of the Chiquinquirá Regional Hospital (Boyacá, Colombia), but its magnitude and risk factors have not been quantified. The objective of this analytical study was to determine risk factors in cases of mild and severe pre-eclampsia in pregnant women attended between 2012 and 2014 in order to assist in the early diagnosis, monitoring and prevention of complications and sequelae. A retrospective case-control study was conducted. We evaluated 356 medical records, 122 cases and 234 controls. Descriptive, bivariate analyses supported by OR with 95% CI were performed, comparison between groups based on T-student and U-tests of Mann-Whitney and age-stratified analysis. The results: provenance, race, diet and education showed no significant associations (p >0.05); history of pre-eclampsia, arterial hypertension, cesarean section in previous pregnancies, intergenic period greater than 10 years and body mass index at the end of pregnancy greater than 35, are risk factors (p <0.05). It is concluded that socioeconomic stratum 2 and the mestizo race are protective factors; stratified analyses showed no confusion for the variable age; there is no distortion of the relationship between the historical variables of pre-eclampsia, hypertension, previous cesarean sections and pre-eclampsia. Intervention actions for risk factors in the study population should target the lowest strata and most vulnerable population.