Distribution patterns of infection with multiple types of human papillomaviruses and their association with risk factors Academic Article


  • PLoS One


  • Background: Infection with multiple types of human papillomavirus (HPV) is one of the main risk factors associated with the development of cervical lesions. In this study, cervical samples collected from 1,810 women with diverse sociocultural backgrounds, who attended to their cervical screening program in different geographical regions of Colombia, were examined for the presence of cervical lesions and HPV by Papanicolau testing and DNA PCR detection, respectively. Principal Findings: The negative binomial distribution model used in this study showed differences between the observed and expected values within some risk factor categories analyzed. Particularly in the case of single infection and coinfection with more than 4 HPV types, observed frequencies were smaller than expected, while the number of women infected with 2 to 4 viral types were higher than expected. Data analysis according to a negative binomial regression showed an increase in the risk of acquiring more HPV types in women who were of indigenous ethnicity (+37.8%), while this risk decreased in women who had given birth more than 4 times (-31.1%), or were of mestizo (-24.6%) or black (-40.9%) ethnicity. Conclusions: According to a theoretical probability distribution, the observed number of women having either a single infection or more than 4 viral types was smaller than expected, while for those infected with 2-4HPV types it was larger than expected. Taking into account that this study showed a higher HPV coinfection rate in the indigenous ethnicity, the role of underlying factors should be assessed in detail in future studies. © 2011 Soto-De Leon et al.

publication date

  • 2011/2/28


  • Binomial Distribution
  • Coinfection
  • Colombia
  • DNA
  • Gammapapillomavirus
  • Geographical regions
  • Human papillomavirus 4
  • Infection
  • Papillomaviridae
  • Parturition
  • Polymerase Chain Reaction
  • Probability distributions
  • Screening
  • Statistical Models
  • Testing
  • binomial distribution
  • data analysis
  • infection
  • lesions (animal)
  • mixed infection
  • nationalities and ethnic groups
  • probability distribution
  • risk factors
  • risk reduction
  • sampling
  • screening
  • testing

International Standard Serial Number (ISSN)

  • 1932-6203