Objectives: The purpose of this paper was to describe the epidemiology of meningococcal disease in Colombia. Materials and methods: This was a descriptive study based on data from various sources in the National Surveillance System. The variables were analysed descriptively and the incidence rates were estimated when the required data were available. Results: During the 2005-2011 period, 1,065 cases were reported, which represented an annual mean incidence of 0.36/100.000 inhabitants. Of these, only 46% were confirmed, which reveals a gap between reporting and confirmation. The greatest incidence was observed in infants younger than one year (5.4-6.9/100,000) and 50% of the cases occurred in children under 10 years of age. Discussion: Neisseria meningitidis serogroup B represented the greatest proportion of isolates; however, serogroups Y and C have been increasing recently. The symptoms were non-specific, the course of the disease was rapid and the lethality high (13.3%). Conclusions: There is a need to improve the available tools for diagnosis and surveillance. Prevention must be oriented toward infants, toddlers and children including protection against serogroups C and Y. Research into strategies for prevention against serogroup B is also necessary.