The thyroid gland is a frequent site of pathology that requires surgical approach. Such techniques, although well-established is occasionally complicated, which usually occurs because of the inexperienced surgeon or unintended anatomical variations. The knowledge and study of these variations are important in order to limit the complications associated with surgical procedures of the thyroid gland, reduce associated morbidity and mortality and improve the performance of diagnostic imaging techniques. A descriptive study was performed with 67 digestive and cervico cardiopulmonary blocks, in cadavers 64 men and 3 women. Dissection of the cervical region was performed at the level of the thyroid gland, identifying the origin, course and relations of the arteries supplying the thyroid gland and, likewise, sought the presence or absence of the middle thyroid artery (IMA). The total of 67 blocks studied showed that all had both thyroid arteries bilaterally. In all blocks analyzed, the superior thyroid artery originated from the external carotid artery and followed the classic route; the inferior thyroid artery, started in the 67 blocks thyrocervical trunk and in 64 patients, the recurrent laryngeal nerve was located posterior to the artery; only in 3 cases, it was found above. IMA presence of thyroid artery in 4 patients, corresponding to 6% of the blocks was confirmed. The findings of this study remain highly correlated with the classical description of the irrigation of the thyroid gland in Western populations, in an origin and course of both thyroid arteries that have a good correlation with those previously described. The presence of thyroid artery IMA was lower than that reported in most series of studies.