OBJECTIVE: To identify actors perception related to attributes of the rabies exposures system surveillance to generate recommendations as required. METHODOLOGY: Grounded theory was used to interpretative analysis identifying analytic categories; 11 semi-structured interviews were made, these were framed on the attributes considered by the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) for evaluation of surveillance systems; interviews were made to people with active role in the surveillance (from notification to system administrator) in departments with higher and lower notification of the event in 2011. RESULTS: Emerged 14 descriptive categories related to nine attributes, surveillance, rabies and proposals for improvement related process; of these, five analytical categories the frame with resources for the operation, experience, direct control of rabies and the role of actors in the process. The importance of the system in gathering information on public health was highlighted; for related publications, actors mentioned that were unknown and were perceived as low the participation of stakeholders in planning. Some difficulties were expressed with quality information: classification of cases, this situation affects representativeness and sensitivity. Acceptability was associated with system tasks and time spent in the process. Opportunity varies in notification and adjustment processes. CONCLUSIONS: The perception of the attributes denotes joint system concepts and lessons learned by the actors; were appointed some positive aspects like history and representativeness and some negatives related with quality, sensitivity, representativeness, usefulness and acceptability.. RECOMENDATIONS: Perform publications and improve participation in the planning system..