Sanitation dynamics: Toilet acquisition and its economic and social implications in rural and urban contexts Academic Article


  • Journal of Water Sanitation and Hygiene for Development


  • This paper uses primary micro-data from Indian households residing in rural villages and poor urban neighbourhoods to shed light on household sanitation decision-making. We use a theoretical economic model to reduce the dimensionality and complexity of this process. Beyond the most commonly analysed motivator, health, we consider economic and non-pecuniary benefits. We provide empirical evidence that each of these margins matter, and do so in both rural and urban contexts, and discuss how our findings can be explored in sanitation policy and programme design.

publication date

  • 2020-1-1


  • 10


  • Bathroom Equipment
  • Decision Making
  • Decision making
  • Economic Models
  • Economics
  • Health
  • Sanitation
  • Theoretical Models
  • decision making
  • economic model
  • economics
  • evidence
  • health
  • household
  • paper
  • policy
  • program
  • sanitation
  • theoretical economics
  • village

International Standard Serial Number (ISSN)

  • 2043-9083

number of pages

  • 14

start page

  • 628

end page

  • 641