Background: Cervical Cancer is one of the leading causes of death in women in the world. Cytology has allowed a timely diagnosis to reduce their mortality, however, some women continue without access to it. The objective of this article is to explore whether there is an associated factor between cytology and multidimensional poverty in Colombia. Methods: Secondary analysis of the National Demography and Health Survey, Colombia 2015. Information is included on 22 446 women between 21 and 49 years of age who have started their sexual life and who did not have a hysterectomy. Descriptive statistics of the sample are presented and measures of association between vaginal cytology and multidimensional poverty raw and adjusted from logistic regression models were calculated. Results: frequencies were performed where 95.7% of them were performed cytology and 86.1% obtained the result. The adjusted models show the cytology taking is associated with age, marital status, place of residence, the wealth quintile (very poor, poor and medium) and with multidimensional poverty: educational achievement (OR: 0.95; IC95 %: 0.92-0.98); childhood conditions (OR: 0.66; 95% CI: 0.5-0.86); assurance (OR: 0.83; 95% CI: 0.78-0.89); formal employment (OR: 1.32; 95% CI: 1.07-1.62) and access to public services (OR: 1.19; 95% CI: 1.09-1.29). Conclusions: This study shows both the beneficial and harmful association of the dimensions of multidimensional poverty with the taking of cytology.