Vitamin A deficiency in children ages 1-4 years represents a public health problem in Colombia. Vitamin A deficiency contributes to a cycle where the lack of this vitamin makes children more vulnerable to infection and, in turn prolonging the infectious state and the associated malnutrition. Objective: To analyze the association between the social determinants of health, Vitamin A deficiency, and the presence of infection in children ages 1-4 years. Methodology: Analytical cross-sectional study based on 6371 records from ENSIN 2015. Results: The social determinants associated with Vitamin A deficiency (DVA) were living in the Atlantic region increased the probability of DVA by 32% (CI = 29 - 34%; p = 0.000) while residing in the Pacific region increased the probability of DVA by 28% (CI = 24 - 32%; p = 0.018). Belonging to the Afro-Colombian ethnicity increased the probability of DVA by 34% (CI = 29 - 39%; p = 0.004) and residing within a household income located in the lowest quartile of wealth increased the probability of DVA by 30% (CI = 28 - 33%; p = 0.003). Increased CRP (infection marker) was also associated with DVA, where it was observed that these children were 52% more likely to suffer from DVA Conclusion: Coexistence of Vitamin A deficiency and the state of infection were more evident in Afro-Colombian children and residing in the Atlantic region and Bogotá. These social-economic criteria are determined by the maternal educational level as observed in the interaction analysis carried out.