Prevalencia de neumoconiosis y hallazgos espirométricos en trabajadores expuestos a polvo de carbón en minería subterránea en el Departamento de Cundinamarca, Colombia, 2014
Objective: To determine the prevalence of pneumoconiosis and characterize the results of spirometry and the presence of respiratory symptoms in workers exposed to coal dust in underground mines in the department of Cundinamarca. Methodology: A cross-sectional study of 215 workers, including socio-demographic information, smoking habits, spirometry results, respiratory symptoms questionnaire, and chest X-ray with taking and reading according to criteria required by the technical guide of the International Labour Organization. Frequency distributions, center trend and scatter measurements and the Chi-square test were used. Results: The average age of the population was 45.5 years and the average length of service was 21.7 years. Spitting up was reported most often by the group of workers (73.5%), followed by coughing (63.3%) and a feeling of tightness in the chest (46%). The diagnosis according to spirometry results classified 89.8% of the population with a normal pattern, 5.1% with an obstructive pattern, 3.7% with a restrictive pattern and 0.5% with peripheral airway alterations. The prevalence of readings compatible with pneumoconiosis, according to ILO criteria in workers was 42.33%. Conclusion: The lack of association between the presence of pneumoconiosis with spirometric results and suggestive symptomatology confirms that workers exposed to continuous chest X-ray should be evaluated. It indicates the need to implement policies for the prevention of diseases associated with mining exploitation.